Influencia de la obesidad y la estructura familiar sobre el rendimiento académico en adolescentes

Maite Santurtún Zarrabeitia, Mª Jose Noriega Borge, Mª Jesús Durá Ros

Resumen


Se pretende estudiar la relación entre el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), la estructura familiar y el rendimiento académico. A partir de la bibliografía analizada, se plantea la siguiente hipótesis: “los adolescentes con un índice de masa corporal superior al que corresponde de acuerdo con su sexo, edad y condición fisiológica; y con una estructura familiar monoparental, tienden a obtener peores resultados académicos”.

Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en una muestra heterogénea en la que participaron 100 alumnos de 3º y 4º de la ESO de tres centros educativos de Santander. Los datos recogidos de cada estudiante fueron: Peso, talla, notas finales por asignaturas obtenidas en el curso previo y estructura familiar. 

El análisis de los datos muestra que un 26% de los participantes presenta un IMC fuera de los límites saludables marcados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS).

En cuanto a la estructura familiar, se observa que es mayor el porcentaje de familias monoparentales en adolescentes con sobrepeso que el de familias monoparentales en adolescentes con normopeso (27% frente a 16%, respectivamente). 

En conclusión, no se aprecia una relación evidente entre el IMC y el rendimiento académico, pero sí entre la estructura familiar y la calificación final. Tanto en el conjunto de la muestra como en el colectivo de adolescentes con sobrepeso se obtienen mejores resultados académicos en familias clásicas que monoparentales.

Palabras clave:
- Índice de masa corporal.
- Obesidad.
- Rendimiento escolar bajo.
- Composición familiar.

We seek to study the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), family structure and school performance. From reviewed literature, we suggest the following hypothesis: "   teenagers with a body mass index greater than  who would be fitting to their sex, age and physiological condition, and with a single-parent family structure, tend to have lower school results".

 A cross-sectional research was made in three schools of Santander. An heterogeneous sample consisting of 100 students in years 3rd and 4th of Compulsory Secondary Education was made. The  collected information from each student was: weight, height, final marks  of last years and family structure.

The  analysis of the information shows that 26% of participants have a BMI outside the healthy limits established by the World Health Organization (WHO).

In terms of family structure, it is observed that there is a higher proportion of single parent families with  overweight adolescents than adolescents with normal-weight (27% vs. 16%, respectively)

In conclusion, no significant relationship was observed between BMI and academic performance, in contrast to family structure with the final grade. Both in the whole sample as well as in the group of adolescents who are overweight, there are better academic outperform in classical than in single-parent families.

Keywords:
- Body Mass Index.
- Obesity.
- Underachievement.
- Family Characteristics.


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